The predominant soil type in our territory is Terra Rossa (hamri) found on coralline limestone rock. Terra rossa is typically reddish due to the high iron oxide content. It is very rich in nutrients but the organic carbon level is low necessitating cyclical application of fertilizer. Soils are predominantly calcareous (calcisols), with a pH tending to be alkaline. Irrigation, drainage and manure fertilizer allow calcisols to be highly productive and indeed, these practices are widespread in Maltese agriculture.

The climate is typically Mediterranean, i.e., mild wet winters and dry hot summers. The yearly average rainfall is 550mm but the rainy season extends from September to March. Crops are impossible to cultivate in the dry arid season from April to August unless irrigation is resorted to. This is further complicated by the fact that water retention is very low and permeability high in our terra rossa soil making frequent irrigation during the vegetative viticultural phase imperative.

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